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Stallions vary considerably in the degree of musculoskeletal or neurologic deficit or discomfort that affects breeding performance or libido.

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Bonnie V. Beaver, in Equine Behavioral Medicine Stallions in free-roaming herds are around mares as they foal. In domestic situations, stallions can also be kept with foaling mares. It is better to keep the stallion with the mares throughout the year rather than to remove him prior to foal arriving and try to reintroduce him afterward. The stallion might become more protective, especially as the mare goes into her foal heat, but keeping them together prevents overly protective behaviors. When stallions are kept with mares, it is advisable to have a small catch pen within or adjacent to the pasture so that a mare can be separated from the band should the need arise.

Stallions are able to identify their own offspring and are very protective of these foals. Youngsters that stray too far from the mare will be guided back. Both mares and stallions will be aggressive toward the introduction, which can be particularly problematic in managed herds.

Around 3 weeks of age, the foal becomes increasingly independent from its dam. Soon after, it will start showing playful SEXUALLY FRUSTRATED STUD in the stallion by nibbling and even biting him. Stallions tolerate these playful antics. Stallions show more aggression toward the yearlings and 2-year-olds in the harem band, which is part of the reason that the colts and fillies ultimately leave. His aggression is directed at the colts ificantly more than the fillies. Stallions that suffer injuries associated with copulation may suffer psychological as well as physical trauma.

After recovery from the physical trauma, the stallion may exhibit abnormal breeding behavior such as refusal to mount mares, mounting without intromission, and ejaculation failure. The more serious the physical trauma, the greater the likelihood of psychological damage. However, young timid stallions may exhibit psychological abnormalities from relatively minor injuries.

A Message To Sexually Frustrated Young Guys

Treatment of stallions exhibiting psychological or behavioral abnormalities requires sufficient time for recovery, as well as extreme patience by management. Psychologically affected stallions should be exposed only to mares at the peak of estrus; these mares must be as receptive and gentle as possible. When a session in ejaculation and preinjury behavior, the stallion should be properly rewarded and praised and then removed from sexual contact until the next day.

The handler should use all types of reward stimuli when the stallion shows the desired behavior. Positive reinforcement will ultimately restore normal sexual behavior. Care should be taken to prevent any subsequent copulation-associated injury; such reinjury would be a negative reinforcement with serious consequences.

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Excessive disciplinary measures applied to breeding stallions can cause psychological problems and abnormal behavior. These behavior abnormalities may be manifested as failure to complete copulation or disinterest in mares. Treatment of such cases should proceed as described earlier.

Excessive discipline cases often present a difficult diagnostic challenge for the clinician. A tougher challenge is to convince the stallion handler that he or she may be having an adverse effect on the stallion's behavior and thus his resultant fertility. Sue M. Some stallions mount a dummy when initially presented, sometimes even without a mare in the vicinity. So it is worth trying a stallion without a mare just in case he is one of the few who take to the dummy immediately. Other stallions require more stimulation and some training.

Except for stallions with seriously inadequate libido or physical disability, almost all stallions can learn to mount a dummy of appropriate de. Some may take several training sessions lasting 10—20 minutes each. Box summarizes the key features of dummy mount de, with particular attention to factors affecting behavior. There is no one correct way to introduce or train a stallion to a dummy mount. The mare and stallion handlers are critical to the success of SEXUALLY FRUSTRATED STUD training. The best can be expected with positive encouragement and with athletic positioning and movement of the stallion and mare, without frustrating or abusing the stallion.

Our usual procedure is to progress through the steps outlined in Box Each is tried several times before going to the next. Once the stallion has successfully mounted and ejaculated on the dummy a few times, the mare or other special procedures used during training SEXUALLY FRUSTRATED STUD be gradually eliminated. Steven P. David L. Stallion-like behavior in an entire stallion i. Stallions vary in response to immunization against GnRH or LH, but the usual effects, in addition to diminution of sexual behavior, are a decrease in the concentrations of testosterone and estrogen in the serum, a decrease in the size of the testes, and a decrease in semen quality.

Repeated immunization is necessary to maintain sufficient binding titer for complete neutralization of GnRH and inhibition of the reproductive endocrine axis. Two injections, administered 4 weeks apart, resulted in almost all treated mares entering anestrus lasting the rest of the breeding season. This vaccine could be a valuable tool for temporarily decreasing undesirable sexual behavior of a stallion that competes in athletic endeavors.

Vaccination could be discontinued when the stallion was determined to be suitable for breeding. Carlos Pinto, Grant S. All unvaccinated stallions and teasers should be serologically tested prior to the breeding season. Seropositive stallions should be isolated pending virus detection.

Mare owners should also establish the antibody status of the donor stallion before importation of semen. If the stallion is seropositive, the semen should not be used unless it can be proved that seroconversion was due to prior vaccination. Stallion display a characteristic precopulatory sequence beginning with nose-to-nose contact associated with a characteristic soft nicker vocalization. Oronasal investigation sniffing, nibbling, nuzzling, and licking follows, starting at the shoulder and elbows and proceeding to the ventral abdomen and udder and then to the hind legs and perineum.

Rubbing or resting the chin on the rump may be displayed, as well as mounting without erection. John P. Special needs of some horses may require more frequent hoof care. Stallions that receive adequate paddock turn-out usually require minimal hoof trimming. Some stallions need shoes on the front feet only, and some need them on all four feet. Hind shoes may be indicated for stallions that are used for live cover or that become sore-footed during the breeding season.

Horses that have laminitis, hoof wall cracks, or flat soles may require regular shoeing to remain comfortable. Stallions are cultured in the routine manner see description in this chapterand swabs are streaked onto blood agar, where under aerobic conditions it produces nonhemolytic mucoid colonies. When placed on MacConkey's agar, K. Gram's stain reveals gram-negative rods. Further biochemical tests are conducted to confirm the identification. An immunofluorescent stain with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled sera is used to differentiate the capsule type. After a positive culture of K.

If the reason for culturing the stallion in the first place was because a of his mares were suffering from poor fertility and demonstrated metritis associated with K. On the other hand, if the isolate was found on a SEXUALLY FRUSTRATED STUD culture, it would be prudent to determine the capsule type and its potential pathogenicity before initiating treatment or rejecting the stallion. If it is determined that the capsule type is indeed a pathogenic strain, test mares should be bred to the stallion to determine if in fact the stallion will infect mares.

It has been reported that in many cases where both stallion and mares cultured positive for K. In these cases the findings were considered unrelated. John V. Steiner, Norman W. New stallion prospects arriving from a racing career to a breeding farm are going into a new phase of their life and in so doing must be acclimated and trained for their new duties. Life at the farm is far different from their life and routine at the racetrack, and a period of adjustment must take place.

Ideally, a stallion prospect should arrive at the breeding farm at least 3 months before the start of the breeding season. At this time, the stallion must become accustomed to his new surroundings and handler. A small paddock should be provided for turn-out. On the first few occasions for turn-out, farm personnel should be positioned SEXUALLY FRUSTRATED STUD the corners of the paddock to help ensure that the stallion does not injure himself. In addition, it may be helpful to sedate the stallion lightly before the first turn-out.

A combination of mg of xylazine coupled with 10 mg of butorphanol tartrate intravenously is adequate for this purpose. This is usually administered 5 minutes before turn-out. An alternative regimen is the administration of 15—20 mg of acetylpromazine intravenously 15 minutes before 2 or intramuscularly 45 minutes before turn-out. In valuable stallionsthe risk of priapism or paraphimosis should be considered when promazine sedation is used. When first working with the stallion, it is imperative that the handler be able to control him.

The stallion must first be taught to stand and back up. Once the stallion can back up on command and the handler feels comfortable with him, the stallion can be introduced to a mare. In addition, the stallion should be walked around the breeding shed area and allowed to become familiar with the sights and smells.

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The jump mare must be in estrus or must be an ovariectomized mare that has been administered 5 mg of estradiol cypionate intramuscularly. The mare must have a quiet, tolerant temperament. The whole experience of introduction should be pleasurable to the stallion, so the minimal restraint and punishment necessary SEXUALLY FRUSTRATED STUD used. When introducing the stallion to live cover, the mare is placed in a breeding shed or other sufficiently sized area e.

Again, the mount mare should be in strong behavioral estrus and of quiet temperament. The stallion should enter the breeding area and take notice of the mare. The mare is twitched and the left foreleg flexed at the carpus and held flexed with a leather leg strap.

Hobbles are used at some farms, but we do not recommend them because of their potential for injury. The stallion is then allowed to move toward the rear quarters and perineum. If the stallion wants to mount at this time, he should be allowed to do so. If the stallion mounts with an erection, he may require some assistance for penile intromission. Once the stallion has bred a mare, SEXUALLY FRUSTRATED STUD washing process can be introduced. This is accomplished again by bringing the stallion into the breeding area, letting him achieve an erection, and then backing him into the wash area.

The wash area should be a corner of the breeding shed that has been set up for this purpose with proper wall padding. Plain warm water and cotton are used to gently wash the penis. Slow, deliberate steps should be taken in this process. Initially, the stallion may violently object to this process, but, with patience, the stallion will tolerate this well. JUAN C. Breeding stallions that are going to be used for AI should have a semen evaluation performed prior to each breeding season. Because it is virtually impossible to improve the inherent quality of semen from a stallion, it is important for the mare owners as well as the stud farm to be aware of the stallion's semen quality.

A veterinarian working for clients that decide to stand a stallion or stallions for AI has the responsibility of overseeing that the clients are properly set up for what they are offering. This preparation includes proper stimulus for the stallion such as, if necessary, the availability of a mare in heat at all times during the breeding season, availability of shipping containers, and a laboratory for the proper evaluation and processing of the semen.

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It is also important to inform the stallion owner that a proper semen evaluation should be performed to determine semen quality and microbiologic status of the semen including equine viral arteritis. Stallions can be trained to achieve an erection by conditioning them to certain routines or by exposure to certain objects or animals associated with breeding.

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A stallion can be stimulated to achieve an erection by exposure to a mare in natural estrus, an ovariectomized mare that has been injected with estrogens, or a phantom or dummy mare where he is normally collected. In addition, stallions can be manually stimulated to drop their penis and then massaging the glans will elicit a full erection and pelvic thrusting movements.


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